HISTORY

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THE HISTORY OF HOMENETMEN

Dating back to 1910, Armenians living in Constantinople participated and prospered in various athletic groups. One of the coaches of these groups, Shavarsh Krissian, with the help of his periodical “Manramarz” publicized the need to unite all Armenians under one organization. Unification plans were halted as in 1914 World War I began. Soon after in 1915 the Armenian Genocide tragically took the life of Shavarsh Krissian as he along with other Armenian intellectuals and leaders were killed at the Ayachi prison in Bosporus.

With the end of the war, a new group of Armenians set out to continue Krissian’s dream. Seven Armenians convened a meeting in Constantinople on November 16, 1918 in order to unite all of the Armenian athletic groups under the name “Homenetmen” (Armenian General Athletic Union and Scouts). The participants of the Homenetmen Constituent Meeting were as follows: Grigor Hagopian, Dikran Khoian, Levon Hagopian, Karlo Shahinian, Haig Jizmejian, Vahram Papazian, & Jirair Khorasanjian.

Shavarsh Krissian, Hovaness Hintiliand and Shavarsh Krissian are the three members credited to be the founding fathers of Homenetmen.

The first Homenetmen Executive Committee was formed on December 16 of 1918. After its establishment in 1918, four Homenetmen chapters were soon opened in various Constantinople neighborhoods.

On July 20, 1920 the founding members of Homenetmen were officially invited to the independent Republic of Armenia. The purpose of the meeting was to share both their knowledge and expertise regarding athleticism and scouting with the Republic’s government. The Homenetmen Executive Committee sent Vahan Cheraz, Dikran Khoian, and Onig Yazmajian to the meeting. Although initially successful in their efforts to spread Homenetmen’s athletic and scouting movement within Armenia, Homenetmen later was banned from Armenia after Armenia’s succession into the Soviet Socialist Republic.

Similarly, in 1922, the Homenetmen chapters in Constantinople were forced to close their doors. This caused the organization’s leaders to disperse throughout the world.

In 1924, the organization’s development resumed establishing a chapter in Beirut, Lebanon, and later on in 1925 in Aleppo, Syria. From that point on Homenetmen continued to organize chapters within the large Armenian communities in the area.

HOMENETMEN’S TIMELINE

1910 – 1919

In February of 1911, well known athlete and Coach Shavarsh Krissian publishes his first “Marmnamarz” magazine, where he establishes the concept of an Armenian Olympics. Krissian also visions the organization of all Armenian athletic clubs and teams under one umbrella organization. The organization of an Armenian Olympic games happens immediately; however, the organization of an umbrella organization does come to fruition until 1918, after Krissian’s death.

Armenian Olympic games are organized in the following years:

• The 1st Olympic Games occur on May 1, 1911.
• The 2nd Olympic Games occur on May 20 1912.
• The 3rd Olympic Games occur on June 16 1913. Gomidas Vartabed presides over the games.
• The 4th Olympic Games are cut short in August of 1914 due to World War I. In 1912 in Alexandria, Egypt with the support of Shavarsh Krissian the “Gamk” athletic club is established, which would eventually incorporate into Homenetmen.
In 1914 in Cairo, Egypt the “Ararat” athletic club is established, which also eventually is incorporated into Homenetmen.
On the eve of April 24, 1915 among hundreds of other Armenian intellectuals, Shavarsh Krissian is transferred to the Ayachi prison in Bosporus where he eventually died.
On November 16, 1918 in order to reunify educated Armenians, seven Armenian individuals convened a meeting in Constantinople and decided to unite all Armenian athletic groups under the name of “Homenetmen” (Armenian General Athletic Union and Scouts).
Participants of Homenetmen Constituent Meeting were:
• Grigor Hagopian
• Tikran Khoian
• Levon Hagopian
• Karlo Shahinian
• Haig Jizmejian
• Vahram Papazian
• Jirair Khorasanjian
On August 31, 1919 the 5th Armenian Olympics is organized in Constantinople and is presided over by Archbishop Zaven.

1920 – 1929

The following Homenetmen chapters were established in this decade:

• 1920: Paris, France;
• 1921: Plovdiv, Bulgaria; New York, U.S.A.;
• 1922: Sofia, Bulgaria; Bucharest, Romania; Silistre, Romania; Kostantsa, Romania; Bazarjek, Romania; Philadelphia, U.S.A.; Boston, U.S.A.
• 1923: Sliven, Bulgaria; Providence, U.S.A.
• 1924: Beirut, Lebanon; Fiks Greece; Kognia, Greece; Lipasma, Greece; Tatar Bazarjek, Bulgaria; Stara Jakora, Bulgaria; Leon, France; Marseille, France;
• 1925: Aleppo, Syria; Damascus, Syria; Shoumen, Bulgaria; Khaskovo, Bulgaria; Galats, Romania; Strounga, Romania; Gerla, Romania; Kishnev, Romania; Valance, France; Brussels, Belgium; Vienna, Austria; Mexico City, Mexico
• 1926: Latakia, Syria;
• 1927: Zahle, Lebanon; Larnaka, Cyprus; Midili Sjhede, Greece; Dede Aghaj, Greece; Buenos Aires, Argentina; Montevideo, Uruguay;
• 1928: Tsolanik, Greece;
• 1929: Kavalara, Greece; Tripoli, Lebanon.
On April 18 1920, Homenetmen for the first time celebrates “Armenian Scouting Day” in Independent Armenia.
On September 5, 1920 the 6th Armenian Olympics are organized in Constantinople this time presided over by Mr. Tahtajian, the representative of Republic of Armenia.
On November 2, 1921 the 7th and the last Armenian Olympic Games take place.
In 1929, elected representatives from Lebanon and Syria meet in their First General Assembly meeting held in Beirut.

1930 – 1939

The following Homenetmen chapters were established in this decade:

• 1930: Baalbak, Lebanon; Homs, Syria; Aitos, Bulgaria;
• 1931: Gamishly, Syria; Amarous, Greece; Tambouria, Greece; Irakelioni, Greece
; • 1932: Tel Abiad, Syria;
• 1934: Hasiche, Syria; Jarablouss; Syria; Azez, Syria;
• 1935: Arab-Bounar, Syria; Bourj Hamoud, Lebanon; Raiiak, Lebanon;
• 1936: Derbassie, Syria;
• 1937: Aain Duar, Syria; Der Zor, Syria; Ras El Ain, Syria; Jerusalem, Palestine; Haifa, Palestine; Yaffa, Palestine; Amman, Jordan;
• 1938: Derik, Syria.
In 1931 elected representatives from Lebanon and Syria meet in their Second General Assembly meeting held in Beirut.

1940 – 1949

The following Homenetmen chapters were established in this decade:

• 1941: Eshtora, Lebanon;
• 1945: Tel Brak, Syria;
• 1947: Ain Arouss, Syria;
• 1948: Kessab, Syria; Ainjar, Lebanon;
• 1949: Hadet, Lebanon; Baghdad, Iraq.
Due to the effects of World War II upon the world’s economic and political atmosphere, Homenetmen chapters previously established in Western Europe and the Americas become weak and somewhat inactive. Moreover, due to the Communist takeover in Eastern Europe, 19 chapters in both Romania and Bulgaria close their doors.

1950 – 1959

The following Homenetmen chapters were established in this decade:

• 1950: Rakka, Syria; Junni, Lebanon; Nea Zmirni, Greece; Athens, Greece; Karea-Kessariani, Greece;
• 1958: Montreal, Canada.
In 1950 permits allowing Homenetmen chapters in Iran (Tehran, Tbariz and Rashd) to exist were not renewed by the Ministry of Education. These three chapters also had to close their doors. However, later on in the decade, the Ministry granted permission for the creation of the Ararat Armenian Cultural Organization.

1960 – 1969

Due to political situation in the Middle East, a large number of Armenians migrate to Australia, Canada, and the United States. Not only do they reestablish their lives and their families, but they also begin the expansion of Homenetmen chapters to new areas.

The following Homenetmen chapters were established in this decade:

• 1965: Sidney, Australia;
• 1966: Melbourne, Australia;
• 1968: Los Angeles, U.S.A.
• 1969: Hamilton, Canada; Toronto, Canada.
In 1969 in Montreal, Canada, the local Homenetmen chapter integrates with Gamk, a local athletic organization. The new combined organization is renamed Homenetmen Gamk.

1970 – 1979

In February, 1973, Homenetmen’s Middle East 20th General Assembly meeting was convened, the last one in this format. The Assembly with its 60 delegates formulated the formation of Homenetmen World Committee.
In December of 1974, Homenetmen’s 1st General Assembly meeting (Badgamavoragan Jhoghov) was convened in Beirut, Lebanon. The meeting in turn elected Homenetmen 1st World Committee as follows:
• Vartkes Der Garabedian, Lebanon, Chairperson
• Vartkes Allahaydoian, Lebanon, Vice Chairperson
• Dickran Vosgouni, Lebanon, Secretary
• Puzant Torigian, Lebanon, Secretary
• Nshan Tyuzouzian, Lebanon, Treasurer
• Hovhaness Baitarian, Lebanon, Accountant
• Taniel Tanielian, Canada, Advisor
• Armen Deirmenjian, U.S.A., Advisor
• Barkev Barsamian, Argentine, Advisor
In August, 1978 (August 1-13), the 1st Pan-Homenetmen Scouting Jamboree was held in Kalamos, Greece; with 12 Regions and 226 scouts participating.

In April of 1979, Homenetmen’s 2nd General Assembly meeting (Badgamavoragan Jhoghov) was convened in Nicosia Cyprus. The meeting in turn elected Homenetmen’s 2nd World Committee as follows:

• Vartkes Der Garabedian, Lebanon, Chairperson
• Dr. Harootoon Kazanjian, Lebanon, Vice Chairperson
• Puzant Torigian, Lebanon, Secretary
• Varoojan Mooradian, Lebanon, Secretary
• Nshan Tyuzouzian, Lebanon, Treasurer
• Hovhaness Baitarian, Lebanon, Accountant
• Barkev Barsamian, Argentine, Advisor
• Varoujan Seropian, Canada, Advisor
• Armen Deirmenjian, U.S.A., Advisor
Due to the increase in the number of established chapters, the decade saw the establishment of four new regions. They are as follows:

• 1973 Austeralia;
• 1974: Western United States;
• 1975: Canada;
• 1977: Eastern United States.

• 1970: San Francisco, Western U.S.A.; Antilias, Lebanon;
• 1971: Washington D.C., Eastern U.S.A.;
• 1973: Fresno, Western U.S.A.; Boston (re-established), Eastern U.S.A.; Western Sydney, Australia;
• 1974: Montebello, Western U.S. A.; Ejdeidi, Lebanon;
• 1975: New Jersey (re-established), Chicago, Eastern U.S.A.;
• 1976: Detroit, Eastern U.S.A.;
• 1977: Cambridge, Canada; New York (re-established), Eastern U.S.A; Pasadena, Western U.S.A.
• 1978: Glendale & Orange County, Western U.S.A.; Philadelphia, Eastern U.S.A.; Kuwait, Kuwait;
• 1979: San Fernando Valley, Western U.S.A.; Cordoba, Argentina; London, England.
Complimenting the addition of the aforementioned new chapters, in 1974 Egypt’s Alexandria “Gamk” and Cairo “Ararat”, as well as in 1977, France’s Paris chapters re-join the Homenetmen family

1980-1989

In 1980 in Beirut, Lebanon, Homenetmen World Committee’s “Marzig” monthly magazine publication begins.

In July, 1980 (July 14-26), the 2nd Pan-Homenetmen Scouting Jamboree was held in Clamart, France; with 12 Regions and 291 scouts participating.
In June, 1981 (June 26 or July 5), the 1st Pan-Homenetmen Athletic Games were held in Toronto and Montreal, Canada. Teams competed in men’s basketball.
In February, 1982 (February 18-21), the 1st Pan-Homenetmen Scouting Leadership Seminar was held in Athens, Greece; with 42 scout leaders and scout council members from 53 chapters participating.
In April, 1983, Homenetmen’s 3rd General Assembly meeting (Badgamavoragan Jhoghov) was convened in Nicosia Cyprus. The meeting in turn elected Homenetmen’s 3rd World Committee as follows:
• Vartkes Der Garabedian, Lebanon, Chairperson
• Dr. Haroutun Kazanjian, Lebanon, Vice Chairperson
• Varoojan Mooradian, Lebanon, Secretary
• Yervant Demirjian, Lebanon, Secretary
• Puzant Torigian, Lebanon, Treasurer
• Garo Tutunjian, Lebanon, Advisor
• Mihran Shimshirian, Lebanon, Accountant
• Vartkes Allahaydoian, Lebanon, Advisor
• Varoujan Seropian, Canada, Advisor
Note: Yegh. Vartkes Der Garabedian became a victim of the Lebanese Civil War. Yegh. Puzant Torigian replaced him as Chairman.
In July, 1985 (July 2-7), the 2nd Pan-Homenetmen Athletic Games were held in Los Angeles, California. Teams competed in men’s soccer (football).
In August, 1986, (August 10-20), the 3rd Pan-Homenetmen Scouting Jamboree was held in Chalphont Heights, England; with11 Regions and 269 scouts participating.
In April, 1987, Homenetmen’s 4th General Assembly meeting (Badgamavoragan Jhoghov) was convened in Athens, Greece. The meeting in turn elected Homenetmen’s 4th World Committee as follows:
• Dr. Misak Arzoomanian, Lebanon, Chairperson
• Yervant Demirjian, Lebanon, Vice Chairperson
• Hovhaness Der Haroutoonian, Lebanon, 1st Secretary
• Garo Tutunjian, Lebanon, 2nd Secretary
• Mihran Shimshirian, Lebanon, Treasurer
• Badrig Goulbengian, Lebanon, Accountant
• Ara Hagopian, Lebanon, Advisor
• Siamanto Garabedian, England, Advisor
• Varoujan Seropian, Canada, Advisor
• Jirair Boyadjian, U.S.A., Advisor
• George Daghlian, Argentina, Advisor
In June, 1988 (June 26-July 5), the 2nd Pan-Homenetmen Scouting Leadership Seminar was organized in Los Angeles, California; with 32 scout leaders from 62 chapters participating.
On December 2, 1989 Homenetmen inaugurates its activities in Armenia with the establishment of the Yerevan chapter.
The following Homenetmen chapters were established in this decade:

• 1981: Providence. Eastern U.S.A.; Florida, Eastern U.S.A.; Eastern Sydney, Australia;
• 1983: San Diego, Western U.S.A.; Milan, Italy (since dissolved); Houston, Western U.S.A. (since dissolved);
• 1985: Vienna, Austria;
• 1986: Albany, Eastern U.S.A.; Saint Catharines, Canada;
• 1987: Batroun, Lebanon (since dissolved);
• 1989: Sydney “Ararat”, Australia; Yerevan, Armenia.
Complementing the new chapters, the chapters in Valance, France (1983) as well as in Montevideo, Uruguay (1987) are re-established.

1990-1999

In April, 1990 (April 12-16), the 3rd Pan-Homenetmen Athletic Games were held in Valance, France. Teams competed in men’s basketball.
In August, 1990 (August 21-31), the 4th Pan-Homenetmen Scouting Jamboree was held in Aya Marina, Greece; with 14 Regions and 484 scouts participating.
In April, 1991, Homenetmen’s 5th General Assembly meeting (Badgamavoragan Jhoghov) was convened in Athens, Greece. Participating for the first time ever at this meeting was the contingent from Homenetmen Armenia. The meeting in turn elected Homenetmen’s 5th World Committee as follows:
• Dr. Misak Arzoomanian, Lebanon, Chairperson
• Varoujan Seropian, Canada, Vice Chairperson
• Hovhaness Der Haroutoonian, Lebanon, 1st Secretary
• Garo Tutunjian, Lebanon, 2nd Secretary
• Mihran Shimshirian, Lebanon, Treasurer
• Badrig Goulbengian, Lebanon, Accountant
• Ara Hagopian, Lebanon, Advisor
• Vartan Bakhshian*, Armenia, Advisor
• Dr. Haroutoun Kazanjian, France, Advisor
• Jirair Boyajian**, U.S.A., Advisor
• Yeghishe Khosdeghian, U.S.A., Advisor
• Arturo Hovhanessian, Argentina, Advisor
• Sooren Nazarian, Syria, Advisor
Notes:
* – Yeghpayr Armen Aghayan replaced Yeghpayr Vartan Bakhshian due to his untimely death during the Artsakh Independence war.
** – Yegh. Hamlet Cherakhjian replaced Yeghpayr Jirair Boyajian due to his untimely death.
In July, 1993 (July 9-18), the 4th Pan-Homenetmen Athletic Games were organized in Toronto and Montreal, Canada; Teams competed in both men’s soccer (football) as well as in track & field events.
In July, 1994 (July 27-August 21), the 5th Pan-Homenetmen Scouting Jamboree was organized in Bouragan, Armenia; with 14 Regions and 432 scouts participating.
In April, 1995, Homenetmen’s 6th General Assembly meeting (Badgamavoragan Jhoghov) was convened in Beirut, Lebanon. The meeting in turn elected Homenetmen’s 6th World Committee as follows:
• Dr. Misak Arzoomanian, Lebanon, Chairperson
• Varoujan Seropian, Canada, Vice Chairperson
• Garo Tutunjian, Lebanon, 1st Secretary
• Mihran Shimshirian, Lebanon, 2nd Secretary & PR
• Antranig Beoukian, Lebanon, Treasurer
• Badrig Goulbengian, Lebanon, Accountant
• Jirair Sarkissian, U.S.A., Advisor
• Manuel Hallajian, Syria, Advisor
• Sarkis Stepanian, U.S.A., Advisor
• Hratch Sisserian, France, Advisor
• Koko Balian, U.S.A., Advisor
In 1995, by the decision of the 6th General Assembly meeting, and in order to comply with the qualifications of the World Scout Movement (WOSM), Homenetmen Armenia’s operation was renamed as the National Scout Movement of Armenia (HASK).
On April 17, 1997, HASK was officially recognized by WOSM as the Republic of Armenia’s representative to the organization.
In July, 1997 (July31 – August 10), the 5th Pan-Homenetmen Athletic Games were held in Washington D.C. and New Jersey, U.S.A. Teams competed in men’s and women’s basketball and volleyball.
In December, 1996 (December 14-23), the 3rd Pan-Homenetmen Scouting Leadership Seminar was held in Sidney, Australia; with 24 scout leaders from 55 chapters participating.
In July, 1998 (July 12-21), the 6th Pan-Homenetmen Scouting Jamboree was held in Aghavnadzor, Armenia; with 19 Regions and 715 scouts participating. Also, 24 scouts from Tehran’s Ararat and Sipan organizations participated as guests at the 6th Pan-Homenetmen Scouting Jamboree.
In March of 1999, Homenetmen’s 7th General Assembly meeting (Badgamavoragan Jhoghov) was convened in Beirut, Lebanon. The meeting in turn elected Homenetmen’s 7th World Committee as follows:
• Puzant Torigian, Lebanon, Chairperson
• Jirair Sarkissian, U.S.A., Vice Chairperson
• Harout Checkijian, Lebanon, Secretary
• Stepan Der Bedrossian, Lebanon, Treasurer
• Bedig Sabounjian, Lebanon, Advisor
• Karnig Megerdichian, Lebanon, Advisor
• Hratch Der Sarkissian, Canada, Advisor
• Sarkis Der Bedrossian, Australia, Advisor
• Koko Balian, U.S.A., Advisor
• Moorad Manoogian, U.S.A., Advisor
• Manuel Hallajian, Syria, Advisor
• Hratch Sisserian, France, Advisor
• Apraham Aharonian, Argentina, Advisor

The following Homenetmen chapters were established in this decade:

• 1990: Charentsavan, Abovian, Sissian, all in Armenia;
• 1991: Hrazdan, Ejmiadzin, Vartan Pakhshian, Ararad, Akhtala, Lori, all in Armenia; Stockholm, Sweden (since dissolved); Santa Clara & Salt Lake City, Western U.S.A.;
• 1992: South Bay, Western U.S.A.;
• 1993: Crescenta Valley, Western U.S.A.;
• 1995: Burbank, Western U.S.A.;
• 1996: Almelo, Netherlands; Las Vegas, Western U.S.A.;
• 1998: Phoenix, Western U.S.A.; Baousherie, Lebanon.
Complementing these new chapters, the following chapters were re-established:
• 1991: Plovdiv, Sofia, Varna, Roussa, all in Bulgaria;
• 1994: Kessab, Syria;
• 1997: Shoumen, Bulgaria
• 1999: Bourgas, Bulgaria.

2000 – Present

In August, 2001 (August 11-16), the 6th Pan-Homenetmen Athletic Games were held in Beirut, Lebanon. Teams competed in men’s soccer (football), as well as in men’s and women’s table tennis and track and field events.
In July, 2002 (July 27-August 4), the 7th Pan-Homenetmen Scouting Jamboree was held in Bouragan, Armenia; with 17 Regions and 510 scouts participating. Also, 31 scouts from Tehran’s Ararat, Sipan, and Nayiri organizations participated as guests at the 7th Pan-Homenetmen Scouting Jamboree.
In June, 2003, Homenetmen’s 8th General Assembly meeting (Badgamavoragan Jhoghov) was convened in Dzaghgadzor, Armenia. Participating for the first time ever at this meeting was the contingent from Homenetmen Javakhk. The meeting in turn elected Homenetmen’s 8th World Committee as follows:
• Karnig Megerdichian, Lebanon, Chairperson
• Stepan Der Bedrossian, Lebanon, Vice Chairperson
• Garo Tutunjian, Lebanon, Secretary
• Badrig Gulbengian, Lebanon, Treasurer
• Kevork Der Garabedian, Syria, Advisor
• Harout Haroutounian, Armenia, Advisor
• Levon Baghdassarian, France, Advisor
• Hratch Der Sarkissian, Canada, Advisor
• Sarkis Der Bedrossian, Australia, Advisor
• Manuel Marselian, U.S.A., Advisor
• Mher Tavidian, U.S.A., Advisor
• Vahram Tanielian, U.S.A., Advisor
• Aprham Aharonian, Argentina, Advisor

In August, 2004, (August 9-14), in Dzaghgadzor, Armenia the 4th Pan-Homenetmen Scouting Leadership Seminar was held with 30 scout leaders from 13 regions, as well as the Individual (Megoussi) Chapters and Tehran “Ararat” Organization scout leaders participating.

In August, 2006 (July 31-August 9), the 8th Pan-Homenetmen Scouting Jamboree was held in Puyragan, Armenia; with 12 Regions and 500 scouts participating.

To date in this decade, the following Homenetmen chapters have been established:

• 2005: Marseille, France; Hungry;

In July, 2005 (July 24 -30), the 7th Pan-Homenetmen Athletic Games were held in Athens, Greece. Teams competed in men’s and women’s basketball, volleyball, and swimming.

Pan Homenetmen Games

Homenetmen athletic activities and competitions are conducted throughout our 10 regions and 92 chapters. Homenetmen World Committee encourages the organization of inter region or continental games, in order to create comradery and friendship among our regions and chapters and their members; creating a healthy Armenian environment for all parties involved.
The main athletic activity organized and supervised by Homenetmen World Committee is the Pan-Homenetmen Games, which takes place once in four years, with the cooperation of the host region. The sports involved in Pan-Homenetmen Games are Football (Soccer), Basketball, Volleyball, Track & Field, Table Tennis and Swimming.

1st PAN-HOMENETMEN GAMES – 1981 The 1st Pan-Homenetmen Athletic Games were held in July 26 through August 5, in Toronto and Montreal, Canada: Teams competed in men’s basketball.
2nd PAN-HOMENETMEN GAMES – 1985 The 2nd Pan-Homenetmen Athletic Games were held in July 2 through 7, in Los Angeles, California: Teams competed in men’s soccer (football).
3rd PAN-HOMENETMEN GAMES – 1990 The 3rd Pan-Homenetmen Athletic Games were held in April 12 through 16, in Valance, France: Teams competed in men’s basketball.
4th PAN-HOMENETMEN GAMES – 1993 The 4th Pan-Homenetmen Athletic Games were organized in July 9 through 18, in Toronto and Montreal, Canada: Teams competed in both men’s soccer (football) as well as in track & field events.
5th Pan-Homenetmen Athletic Games were held in July 31 through August 10, in Washington D.C. and New Jersey, U.S.A. Teams competed in men’s and women’s basketball and volleyball.
6th PAN-HOMENETMEN GAMES -2001 The 6th Pan-Homenetmen Athletic Games were held in August 11 through 16, 2001, in Beirut, Lebanon. Teams competed in men’s soccer (football), as well as in men’s and women’s table tennis and track and field events.
7th PAN-HOMENETMEN GAMES – 2005 The 7th Pan-Homenetmen Athletic Games were held in Athens, Greece, from July 24 through 31, 2005. Teams competed
in men’s and women’s basketball, volleyball, and swimming.

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